People often ask me about generations in non-U.S. societies. As someone who travels and speaks often outside America—and who does plenty of international research for clients—I have thought a lot about this question. I believe I offered a short answer to this question in an earlier post (on Spain). I have spent most of my time trying to figure out Europe and East Asia, whose generational line-up roughly matches out own, and the Muslim world, whose line-up is very different in certain important ways.
What about Central and South America? Ten years ago, I was very unsure. But after travelling in these areas and speaking to many residents there, I am growing more convinced that here too the generational line-up is similar in certain respects to our own.
Last summer, I flew down to Sao Paulo to speak to business leaders and the media in Brazil about emerging generational differences in one of the hottest of the BRIC economies. Before going, I wasn’t sure what to expect. But once there, I was hugely struck by how similar the questions asked of me were to questions asked here in the United States. (Admittedly, they were talking mostly about Brazil’s emerging middle class families, who are stampeding to all the new malls they are building.) Everyone who interviewed me told about how protected, special, group-oriented the new generation of youth is. The people asking the questions, in their 30s and 40s, all felt they had a much rougher childhood. As for those in their 60s now in power (I’m thinking of the peers of Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff), many came of age with showy, left-wing, Che Guevera radicalism just like Boomers in the US. (Though I know this radicalism resulted in a great deal more violence and death in Brazil and throughout much of Latin America.) I saw one photo of Dilma Rousseff in the newspapers showing her as a 20-year-old with a bullet bandolier across her chest. Made me think of Patty Hearst.
Anyway, with this introduction, let me introduce a Brazilian correspondent of mine who will deliver her own testimony on generational differences there. She lives in Porto Alegre, RS, in the south of Brazil.
I’m 32 years old–so I remember, as a child/teen, the time we had a big inflation, till it changes with “Plano Real” (1994). Also, I’m talking from a middle class perspective, with all the limits and subjectivity that it implies in my perceptions.
What do I see in Brazilians of different ages today? Well, personally, as a last wave Gen-Xer, I do not feel that my childhood has been so unprotected as the childhood of my friends a little older, in their 40s; I believe that, at least in my family, the concept of childhood already was more for “Three men and a baby” than for “Rosemary’s Baby”; but also was not as protected as the children who were born after, especially those in their 20s today.
I believe that we knew how to have fun. The Millennials seem better behaved and more conventional, in general. Indeed, only in the last year was smoking prohibited in nightclubs here in my city, which was surprising for me, and it is a clear sign of protective behavior towards young people. Also I see a tendency to protect more children; on the other hand, I see a certain movement back to a childhood a little more relaxed, back to nature, and a search of a less stressing style of parenting.
Yes, there is a lot in common, but there are some things that are widely different, and maybe it gives to a certain “national flavor” that is unique. For example, the Puritan influence is very strong in the history of the USA. Here, we don’t have this influence, so our Idealist type will be a little different. And, of course, historical facts affected us in different ways. The effects of the World War II had more impact over the G.I.s in the USA, empowering them, than over the same generation in Brazil–or, at least, produced a diverse impact, considering the political context and our participation on the war. In fact, the Civic type is the most difficult to identify, to me. Oscar Niemeyer and Juscelino Kubitschek are good examples of G.I.s, maybe?
What bothers me is that we don’t have a good study on generations here in Brazil. Every time the newspapers and magazines say something about Generation Y, it’s something very superficial, with no real basis, talking about the internet and the work force (only), and saying that this generation doesn’t like hierarchy and wants to go to the top quickly.
This is a very nice letter. I was especially struck by her mention of Niemeyer (the great modernist architect-designer of Brasilia) and Kubitschek (the president who built Brasilia). Brasilia, that vast utopian tabula-rasa New-World Constantinople built smack in the middle of the jungle back in 1960 as Brazil’s new capital. Can’t get much more “G.I.” than that! Niemeyer, in fact, was a huge modernist sensation even in the U.S. during 1950s, where he taught at Harvard and joined with Corbusier in designing the UN headquarters in New York City. His main problem in the U.S. was his communist party membership, which kept getting him deported.
Here is the stunning Niemeyer-designed Roman Catholic cathedral in Brasilia. (Communist architect for a Catholic Church? I guess in Brazil it doesn’t matter!)
I’m going to report regularly in this blog on generational differences in other countries, using as much as possible reports from residents.